Allah عزوجل says in The Qur’an:
وَأَنذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْـَٔازِفَةِ إِذِ ٱلْقُلُوبُ لَدَى ٱلْحَنَاجِرِ كَـٰظِمِينَ ۚ مَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مِنْ حَمِيمٍۢ وَلَا شَفِيعٍۢ يُطَاعُ
يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ ٱلْأَعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى ٱلصُّدُورُ
“And warn them (O Muhammad ﷺ) of the Day that is drawing near (i.e. the Day of Resurrection), when the hearts will be choking the throats, and they can neither return the hearts to their chests nor can they throw them out. There will be no friend, nor an intercessor for the Zalimun (polytheist and wrong-doers, etc.), Who could be given heed to.
Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all the breasts conceal.”
Surah Al-Ghafir, 40:18-19
Excerpts from Tafsir Ibn Kathir about these ayahs:
`The Day that is drawing near’ is one of the names of the Day of Judgement. It is so called because it is close, as Allah says:
﴿أَزِفَتِ الاٌّزِفَةُ – لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ ﴾
(The Day of Resurrection draws near. None besides Allah can avert it) (53:57-58)
﴿اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ ﴾
(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder) (54:1)
﴿اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَـبُهُمْ﴾
(Draws near for mankind their reckoning) (21:1),
﴿أَتَى أَمْرُ اللَّهِ فَلاَ تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ﴾
(The Event (the Hour) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it) (16:1),
﴿فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ زُلْفَةً سِيئَتْ وُجُوهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ﴾
(But when they will see it approaching, the faces of those who disbelieve will change and turn black with sadness and in grief) (67:27), and
﴿إِذِ الْقُلُوبُ لَدَى الْحَنَاجِرِ كَـظِمِينَ﴾
(when the hearts will be at the throats Kazimin. ) Qatadah said, “When the hearts reach the throats because of fear, and they will neither come out nor go back to their places.” This was also the view of `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and others.
(Kazimin) means silent, for no one will speak without His permission:
﴿يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الرُّوحُ وَالْمَلَـئِكَةُ صَفّاً لاَّ يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَقَالَ صَوَاباً ﴾
(The Day that Ar-Ruh (Jibril) and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious allows, and he will speak what is right.) (78:38). Ibn Jurayj said:
(Kazimin) “It means weeping.”
﴿مَا لِلظَّـلِمِينَ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَلاَ شَفِيعٍ يُطَاعُ﴾
(There will be no friend, nor an intercessor for the wrongdoers, who could be given heed to.) means, those who wronged themselves by associating others in worship with Allah, will have no relative to help them and no intercessor who can plead on their behalf; all means of good will be cut off from them.
﴿يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ الاٌّعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ ﴾
(Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal.) Allah tells us about His complete knowledge which encompasses all things, great and small, major and minor, so that people will take note that He knows about them and they will have the proper sense of shyness before Allah. They will pay attention to the fact that He can see them, for He knows the fraud of the eyes, even if the eyes look innocent, and He knows what the hearts conceal. Ad-Dahhak said:
(the fraud of the eyes,) “A wink and a man saying that he has seen something when he has not seen it, or saying that he has not seen it when he did see it.” Ibn
Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "Allah knows when the eye looks at something, whether it wants to commit an act of betrayal or not.'' This was also the view of Mujahid and Qatadah. IbnAbbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah:
﴿وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ﴾
(and all that the breasts conceal.)”He knows, if you were able to, whether you would commit Zina with a woman or not.” As-Suddi said:
﴿وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ﴾
(and all that the breasts conceal.) meaning, of insinuating whispers.
﴿وَاللَّهُ يَقْضِى بِالْحَقِّ﴾
(And Allah judges with truth, ) means, He judges with justice. Al-A
mash narrated from Said bin Jubayr from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that this Ayah means: “He is able to reward those who do good with good and those who do evil with evil.”
﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ﴾
(Certainly, Allah! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) This is how it was interpreted by Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. This is like the Ayah:
﴿لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيِجْزِى الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ بِالْحُسْنَى﴾
(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best) (53:31).
﴿وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ﴾
(while those to whom they invoke besides Him,) means, the idols and false gods,
﴿لاَ يَقْضُونَ بِشَىْءٍ﴾
(cannot judge anything.) means, they do not possess anything and they cannot judge anything.
﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ﴾
(Certainly, Allah! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) means, He hears all that His creatures say and He knows all about them, so He guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills. And He judges with perfect justice in all of that.
﴿أَوَلَمْ يَسِيروُاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَانُواْ هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَءَاثَاراً فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَاقٍ – ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانَت تَّأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ فَكَفَرُواْ فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ إِنَّهُ قَوِىٌّ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴾
(21. Have they not traveled in the land and seen what was the end of those who were before them They were superior to them in strength, and in the traces in the land. But Allah seized them with punishment for their sins. And none had they to protect them from Allah.) (22. That was because there came to them their Messengers with clear evidences but they disbelieved (in them). So Allah seized them. Verily, He is All-Strong, Severe in punishment.)
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
These beautiful ayah teach us many lessons but the lesson that I’d like to draw forth that of intention. In Islam the Arabic word for intention is “niyyah”. Hearts are of two types and therefore niyyah is of two types. There is the heart whose niyyah is set towards good so it is the most happy when doing good for Allah sake. This heart though it enjoys the good it may also fall into evil through incorrect judgment, hastiness, following the nafs, and other displeasurable deeds. Evil cannot reside with his soul long it must give up the burden of sin through repentance. Then it finds again it’s rest in the remembrance of Allah.
The second type of heart is the unfortunate heart. This is the heart that is set upon evil- therefore falls into evil and indulges in the good that came through fraud and deception. This heart is unlike the first heart, the good heart, and that it does not recognize is evil it only recognizes it’s good. Therefore, it never experiences the joys of repentance, true guidance from Allah, the sweetness of Faith, the purity of truth, or any other goodness it may seem to enjoy. This heart finds rest and what it can acquire from the dunya. It is happy when it gets from the dunya, it becomes agitated and sad when it does not get from the dunya.
Many people judge others based upon their appearances, their clothing, their wealth, their fame, their power, their positions, and so on. The ignorant ascribe to person’s who have these bounties status in society even rank with Allah! Beautiful forms, clothing and adornments, and worldly positions are tangible and observable by the eye. But what matters the most is the heart which is a matter of the unseen. This is the most precious affair to Allah, the heart.
Hazrat Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه has related that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Allah does not go after your bodies and appearances but He scans your hearts.
These two intentions of the heart are only known in truth by Allah but can be evidenced by certain marks;
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud رضي الله عنه relates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said: ‘A true action leads to the path of virtue and good deeds, and virtue paves the way of a person to Paradise, and the said person continues to speak the truth till in the sight of Allah he is named Siddiq or Truthful. Lying leads to vice, and vice leads to indecent acts and if a person goes on lying till in the sight of Allah he is named a liar.
Bukhari and Muslim
By this beautiful we are given a glimpse about the fate of the two hearts. The heart which intends upon good delights in goodness and truth is (consequently) led to more truth, virtuous deeds, and ultimately Paradise. Whilst the heart that intends evil, is lead to more falsehood in his religion and speech, until Allah misguides them from His Path.
This is indicated in Allah’s statement;
يُثَبِّتُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱلْقَوْلِ ٱلثَّابِتِ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَفِى ٱلْـَٔاخِرَةِ ۖ وَيُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ ۚ وَيَفْعَلُ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ
“Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allah will cause to go astray those who are Zalimun (polytheist and wrong-doers), and Allah does what He wills.
Surah Ibrahim, 14:27
We ask Allah to keep us firm upon Tawheed In this life and in the hereafter. Ameen